In practice, of course, things are more complicated. Effective translation necessitates a nuanced understanding of (at least) two languages and cultures, both source and target. It requires an understanding of the original content’s goals. It mandates a fluency in tone and subtext as well as vocabulary and grammar. In short, it requires a highly competent person to effect resonance. In theory, companies could (and some do) perform translation and localization work in-house. But the reason so many choose not to is because a language service provider (LSP) like Lionbridge can help simplify processes (and, in the long run, reduce costs) when translation and localization get really complicated.